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Sinusitis in Children

Sinusitis in Children

What is Sinusitis

The sinuses are described as cavities surrounded by bone on all four sides, totaling approximately 8-10 cavities around the nose. Inflammation of the mucous membrane covering these spaces can cause severe pain.

Sinus therapy is treated with medical and surgical methods thanks to the developing technological devices, and recovery is achieved in a short time.
The sinus cavities open into the area called the “ostiomeatal complex” in the nose. This region is one of the narrowest parts of the nose in terms of structure. It is also directly affected by infections in the nose. Every day, 0.5-1 liter of secretion is produced in the sinuses.

This secretion is swept into the holes defined as the “ostium” by tiny hairs called “cilia” that are invisible to the naked eye on the sinus mucosa. The resulting secretion plays a major role in the body’s immunity.

However, if the door of the sinus opening to the nose is closed due to a problem in the ostiomeatal complex, the secretion cannot be thrown out and accumulates inside. For this reason, the movement of the cilia stops, and sinusitis occurs because an environment where microbes and viruses can easily reproduce.

Causes of Sinusitis

Among the most important factors affecting the formation of sinusitis are; Causes such as very frequent upper respiratory tract infections, crooked nasal bone or cartilage, nasal concha, tumors in the nasal region, clogged sinus channels, low immune system, allergies, adenoids, exposure to smoking or smoking environments, and air pollution can cause sinusitis. has very important effects.
Especially children should be kept away from smoking environment. After smoking, the most important factors causing sinusitis in children are air pollution and enlargement of the adenoid.

This disorder, which can be seen at any age, may appear differently in childhood. Adenoid is one of the leading causes of childhood sinusitis. Since it impairs the ventilation of the nose, it facilitates the growth of microbes inside. For this reason, the adenoids and tonsils are often inflamed.

In addition, sinusitis is more common in children with weak immune system. Environmental factors also cause sinusitis. Cold and humidity directly affect the discomfort.

Factors such as sleeping with wet hair or going out, using excessive amounts of gel facilitate the formation of sinusitis. In children, smoking, excessive use of perfume and very dry air are among these factors.

Sinusitis Symptoms

Not every headache should be considered as sinusitis. Headaches can also develop due to different reasons or stress. Sinusitis is one of the most insidious diseases that should be treated in a short time.

Although the causes of sinusitis are listed as follows, sometimes it can only be diagnosed by examination. Sinusitis symptoms include;
Long-lasting flu or cold
A throbbing and persistent pain around the eyes and face
feeling of pressure in the eyes
nasal congestion
Postnasal drip
Yellow-green discharge from the nose and throat
Throat ache
Bad breath, impaired smell and taste
slight fever
Fatigue and difficulty adapting
Persistent cough that does not go away for a long time
Anorexia, cough, nausea and vomiting
Diagnostic Methods
In order to diagnose the disease, the physician first listens to the patient’s history. With the help of an endoscopy device in adult individuals, it is checked whether the secretion coming from the sinus is inflammatory or allergic. However, it is not possible to apply both endoscopy and CT scan to children.

Sinusitis in Children

These diagnostic tools are not preferred because anesthesia is required for children to stand still. Imaging methods such as computed sinus tomography may be preferred more in children.

The diagnosis of sinusitis is made by looking at the complaints, nasal discharge and nasal discharge density. Sinusitis is divided into various types according to the frequency of occurrence and recovery. The type that heals in four weeks from the beginning is called “acute sinusitis”, and the type that heals in 4-12 weeks is called “subacute sinusitis”. Those who recover in a longer time are defined as “chronic sinusitis”.

Sinusitis Treatment Methods

Because of their location, the sinuses are adjacent to important structures such as the eye, optic nerves, great vessels, brain and pituitary. Surgical methods applied for the treatment of sinusitis in these cavities surrounded by very thin bones also have the risk of damaging the structures in question.

In the method defined as navigation surgery, the surgeon sees all the operations performed step by step and in which region, and immediately notices when an unexpected problem occurs.

For sinusitis surgery, children 13-14 years and older are preferred. Due to the completion of facial development in children and the narrow and small structures of the nose, it is not recommended to perform the operation at a very young age. Since sinusitis surgery is close to the eyes and nerves, it needs to be done carefully and limitedly. In cases where anatomy is difficult, such as the face, guiding devices such as navigation CT can be used.

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